Explore the fascinating transition from early cells to multi-celled animals. This transition, as well as several other major evolutionary transitions, dramatically increased the complexity of lifeforms on our planet.
OVERVIEW OF MAJOR TRANSITIONS
This animation was based on a paper by Stuart West et al called Major Evolutionary Transitions in Individuality
Dr West's paper defines major transitions in a slightly narrower way than earlier workers on the subject. For a broader definition see the book by John Maynard Smith and Eörs Szathmáry on the topic called The Major Evolutionary Transitions in Evolution
The paper by Dr Margulis (Sagan) on the origin of mitochondria is called On the Origin of Mitosing Cells.
Note that in it she presents several ideas cautiously as hypothesis. While some aspects of the paper are now known to be incorrect, she was spot on about the origin of mitochondria.
The free living genes discovered by Dr Diener were made of RNA. Read about them in his paper called Potato spindle tuber “virus”: IV. A replicating, low molecular weight RNA
Here is an excellent Wikipedia article on them I suggest looking over first. It includes a schematic of the species Diener found: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viroid
EXPERIMENTS SHOWN IN THIS ANIMATION